Permanent mold casting is often mentioned when we discuss efficient and high-quality manufacturing methods. What is permanent mold casting? Why should you consider using it in your next project? I’ll take you through some of the basics of this fascinating technique.

The permanent molding method is pouring molten steel into a reusable mold to produce identical parts. Molds are usually made from metal, such as steel or cast iron, that can withstand high temperatures. This process produces high-precision components with excellent surface finishes.

Let’s examine why permanent mold casting is superior to other casting methods.

Fundamentals of Permanent Mold Casting

The Basic Principles of and Processes

Pouring molten steel into a mold that can be reused to produce precise, consistent parts is called permanent mold casting. The process starts with melting the metal. The molten material is then poured into the cavity of the mold. The mold is then opened, and the part cast is removed once the metal has solidified.

The Key Components of Equipment

The molds are used in permanent mold casting, and the molten metal is the primary component. To withstand the high temperature of the molten material, the molds are made of durable materials such as steel or cast iron.

The following essential equipment is also included:

  1. Furnaces: Used for melting metal.
  2. Pouring Mechanisms: Control the flow of molten metal into the mold precisely.
  3. Cooling Systems: Regulate the solidification process and affect the final product’s quality.
  4. Ejector system: Facilitate removal of the cast parts from the molds without damaging them.

Permanent Moulds: Types and Applications

The permanent molds are classified according to their application and design:

  1. Gravity Molds: This is the simplest type of mold, in which molten metal pours into the mold using gravity. This method is economical and can produce medium-sized or large-sized components.
  2. Low-Pressure Moulds: This type uses a low-pressure system to force the molten material into the mold. It improves the filling of complex details and reduces porosity.
  3. Tilt pour Moulds: The mold is tilted during pouring, which reduces turbulence and helps control metal flow. This leads to fewer defects on the cast parts.

Materials used in Permanent Mould Casting

The materials available for permanent mold casting offer a wide range of possibilities. We’ll explore the most common metals, alloys, and mold materials used in casting.

Metais e ligas comuns

Ligas de alumínio

Aluminum alloys are used widely in permanent mold casting because of their excellent fluidity and lightweight properties. These alloys can be used for household appliances, automotive, and aerospace components.

Ligas de cobre

Copper alloys have been chosen because of their excellent thermal conductivity, resistance to corrosion, and high strength.

Magnesium Alloys

Used to improve the fuel efficiency of aircraft and vehicles.

Moulding Materials


Graphite is a viral material for permanent molds because of its high thermal conductivity. It can also withstand extreme temperatures. It has excellent lubricity and reduces the need for release agents.

Cast Iron

Cast iron molds can handle high temperatures and deliver consistent performance for many casting cycles. They are used to produce parts with simple geometry and thicker sections.


The strength and durability of steel molds are significant factors in their selection. They can withstand repeated thermal cycling and produce castings that have intricate details and are highly accurate.

Permanent Mould Casting Techniques

Permanent Mould Casting Techniques

There are many different techniques for permanent mold casting to meet your casting requirements. Here are some of the common variations.

Gravity Die Casting (Permanent Mold Casting):

The mold cavity is filled by gravity only. This method works well for simple to moderately complicated parts with good dimensional accuracy.

Low-Pressure Die Casting (LPC):

Low-pressure die casting is when a chamber is under pressure and forces molten metal to flow into the mold cavity. This technique improves metal flow characteristics and filling properties, particularly for intricate parts or thin sections.

High-Pressure Die Casting:

The high-pressure process forces molten metal into a mold cavity at high speeds. This process produces parts of high quality with excellent surface finish and dimensional accuracy but requires expensive and complex tooling.

Tilt Pour Permanent Mould Casting

This variation involves tilting a mold during the pouring procedure. The metal fills in the cavity of the mold gradually, minimizing turbulence.

Design Considerations for Permanent Mould Casting

During the design phase, it is essential to consider all aspects of permanent mold casting. We will explore the critical aspects of part design optimization, thermal management, and mold design in permanent mold cast.

Mold Design and Construction

  • Split Lines in the Mold: The placement of the parting lines at the point where the two halves meet is critical. It should minimize the disruption of the final part geometry and allow easy ejection.
  • Venting and Gating: The design and layout of the venting and gating systems, which allow trapped air to escape from the mold, significantly impact the quality of castings. A proper design will ensure the mold cavity is filled correctly, reduce turbulence, and prevent defects.
  • Cooling channels: Permanent molds include cooling channels that control the rate at which metal solidifies. These channels are strategically placed to achieve uniform cooling of the part and its dimensional stability.
  • Coatings for Molds: By applying coatings to the mold cavity, you can improve heat transfer and the surface finish of cast parts. The coating chosen depends on the metal used for casting and the desired result.

Part Design for Optimal Casting

  • Wall thickness: Maintaining a uniform wall thickness throughout part design promotes consistency cooling and minimizes any risk of shrinkage or hot spots.
  • Draft Angles: Draft angles are slight tapers incorporated into the sidewalls of the cast part. They make it easier to remove the cast part from the mold and prevent any damage from being done to the part of the mold.
  • Bosses and Ribs: Bosses and ribs can be added strategically to the design of a part to increase strength and rigidity. Their design must consider the proper filling and stabilization.

Thermal Management of Molds

  • Design of an effective cooling system: Incorporating a cooling system into the mold is essential. This system removes heat from the mold, controlling the solidification rate and influencing final properties.

Selection of Mold Material: The mold material selection (cast iron, steel, or graphite) also plays a vital role in thermal management. Each material has different thermal conductivity characteristics, affecting heat transfer and solidification.

permanent mold casting aluminum

The permanent mold casting process: A step-by-step breakdown

To ensure efficiency and quality, permanent mold casting requires a clearly defined sequence of steps. We’ll go through each step, from part preparation to retrieval.

Pre-Casting: Setting the Scene

  • Preparation of the permanent mold: It is thoroughly cleaned and checked for cracks, damage, or debris. Depending on the type of casting metal used and the desired result, mold coatings can be applied.
  • Pré-aquecimento: The mold is heated to a specific temperature. This preheating is used to:
    • Increase metal flow and filling properties within the cavity.
    • Reduce the thermal shock of the molten steel when it is poured to reduce the risk of cracking.
    • Improve the surface finish of the cast part.

After-Casting operations: Transforming the cast part

After the metal has solidified and the mold opened, several post-casting operations are carried out to turn the rough casting into a finished part.

Trimming and deburring

Trimming and rebarbação are the first steps in finishing after casting. Trimming is the process of removing excess material and flash from the edge of the cast piece.

Tratamento térmico

Tratamento térmico is an important post-casting process that enhances the mechanical properties. The process involves heating parts to a specific temperature and cooling them at a controlled pace. Heat treatment can increase hardness, strength, flexibility, and resistance to corrosion and wear.

Permanent Mould Casting: Pros and Cons

Like any other process, there are pros and cons. We’ll explore both sides to help you decide whether permanent mold casting will work for you.


  • Superior Finishing and Dimensional Accuracy: Permanent molds produce parts that have a better surface finish and tighter tolerances. This reduces the need for post-machining and finishing operations.
  • Faster production rates: Permanent molds can be reused hundreds, if not thousands, of times. This leads to faster production cycles.
  • Improved mechanical properties: Rapid solidification within a permanent mold can result in finer grain structures in the cast material.
  • More comprehensive Selection of Metals: Permanent Mold Casting can accommodate a more comprehensive selection of metals than sand casting.
  • Ambientalmente amigável: Permanent Molds are reusable and reduce waste compared to disposable sand molds.


  • High Initial Tooling Costs: Creating a permanent mold can cost significantly more than sand-casting molds.
  • Limited Part Complexity: These parts may not be suitable for parts with extreme undercuts or internal features with complex internal features.
  • Die Casting Has Slower Cycle Times: Permanent mold casting is faster than sand casting but has a slower cycle time than high-pressure die casting.

Permanent Mold Casting Compared with Other Methods

The casting method you choose depends on the requirements of your project. This is a comparison of permanent mold casting and some other common alternatives.

Recurso Permanent Mold Casting Sand Casting Investment Casting Fundição sob pressão
Part Complexity Moderately complex Highly complex Very intricate Highly complex
Volume de produção Medium volume Low volume or prototypes Low volume High volume
Precisão dimensional Alto Moderado Very high Very high
Acabamento da superfície Smooth Rough Excelente Excelente
Cost per Part Lower for medium to high volume Lower for low volume Higher Higher for high volume
Reusability of Mold Reusable Not reusable Not reusable Not reusable
Cycle Time Faster Slower Slow Very fast
Compatibilidade de materiais Wider range Limited Limited Wider range
Environmental Friendliness More environmentally friendly Less environmentally friendly Less environmentally friendly Less environmentally friendly

Permanent Mold Casting Applications

It is used in various industries to produce components with high-quality finishes and accuracy. Here are some examples of specific applications.

Indústria automobilística:

  • Engine components: pistons, cylinder heads, blocks
  • Transmission parts: Housings, gears, synchronizers

Aerospace Industry:

  • Components structural: wings, brackets and fittings
  • Engine parts: housings, casings and manifolds

Bens de consumo

  • Cookware: Pots, pans, skillets
  • Sports equipment: golf clubs, bicycle frames, and fishing reels

Permanent mold casting is used in many other industries, such as:

  • Industrial machinery: Valves, pumps, housings
  • Medical Devices: Implants, prostheses and surgical implants
  • Electrical components: Connectors and casings


Permanent mold casting is an efficient and robust manufacturing process that produces high-quality parts with excellent dimensional accuracy. Its strength lies in its ability to deliver excellent surface finishes and consistent results over multiple production runs. The initial investment can be substantial, but the benefits of reusable molds and reduced waste material make it an attractive choice for many industries.

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What is the difference between permanent and disposable mold casting?

The main difference is the ability to reuse the mold. The molds are disposed of after each casting.

Is permanent mold casting better than sand casting?

It depends on what you need. Permanent mold casting is best for parts that require high-volume production and have a medium level of complexity.

Is investment casting more expensive than sand casting?

Investment casting is more expensive in general than sand casting. These higher costs are caused by the complex wax patterns and ceramic molds used during the process. They require more resources and time to create.

What is the best casting process?

The highest quality castings are usually produced by investment casting in terms of precision and surface finish. They can also produce intricate details. This is the best choice for components that require fine features, tight tolerances, and excellent mechanical characteristics.


Mais recursos:

Sand Casting vs. Permanent Mold – Source: Batesville Products

A Sustainable Manufacturing Choice – Source: LineView Solutions

Olá, chamo-me Kevin Lee

Kevin Lee


Nos últimos 10 anos, tenho estado imerso em várias formas de fabrico de chapas metálicas, partilhando aqui ideias interessantes a partir das minhas experiências em diversas oficinas.

Entrar em contacto

Kevin Lee

Kevin Lee

Tenho mais de dez anos de experiência profissional no fabrico de chapas metálicas, especializando-me em corte a laser, dobragem, soldadura e técnicas de tratamento de superfícies. Como Diretor Técnico da Shengen, estou empenhado em resolver desafios complexos de fabrico e em promover a inovação e a qualidade em cada projeto.

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